الرئيسيةس .و .جالتسجيلبحـثالمجموعاتدخولمكتبة الصور

شاطر | 
 

 Arabization of Northwest Africa

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
mis_imzouren
عضو جديد
  عضو جديد


عدد الرسائل : 17
العمر : 32
العمل/الترفيه : football
المزاج : sad
تاريخ التسجيل : 21/06/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Arabization of Northwest Africa   الخميس سبتمبر 25, 2008 5:41 pm

Before the 9th century, most of Northwest Africa was a Berber-speaking Muslim area. The process of Arabization only became a major factor with the arrival of the Banu Hilal, a tribe sent by the Fatimids of Egypt to punish the Berber Zirid dynasty for having abandoned Shiism. The Banu Hilal reduced the Zirids to a few coastal towns, and took over much of the plains; their influx was a major factor in the Arabization of the region, and in the spread of nomadism in areas where agriculture had previously been dominant.
Soon after the independence in the middle of the 20th century, the countries of North Africa established Arabic as their official language, replacing French (except in Libya), although the shift from French to Arabic for official purposes continues even to this day. As a result, most Berbers had to study and know Arabic, and had no opportunities until the 21st century to use their mother tongue at school or university. This may have accelerated the existing process of Arabization of Berbers, especially in already bilingual areas, such as among the Chaouis.
Berberism had its roots before the independence of these countries, but was limited to some Berber elite. It only began to gain success when North African states replaced the colonial language with Arabic and identified exclusively as Arab nations, downplaying or ignoring the existence and the cultural specificity of Berbers. However, its distribution remains highly uneven. In response to its demands, Morocco and Algeria have both modified their policies, with Algeria redefining itself constitutionally as an "Arab, Berber, Muslim nation".
Now, Berber is a "national" language in Algeria and is taught in some Berber speaking areas as a non-compulsory language. In Morocco, Berber has no official status, but is now taught as a compulsory language regardless of the area or the ethnicity.
Berbers are not discriminated against based on their ethnicity or mother tongue. As long as they share the reigning ideology, they can reach high positions in the social hierarchy; good examples are the former president of Algeria, Liamine Zeroual, and the current prime minister of Morocco, Driss Jettou. In Algeria, furthermore, Chaoui Berbers are over-represented in the Army for historical reasons.
Berberists who openly show their political orientations rarely reach high hierarchical positions. But, Khalida Toumi, a feminist and Berberist militant, has been nominated as head of the Ministry of Communication in Algeria.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://cafe-rif.com
mis_imzouren
عضو جديد
  عضو جديد


عدد الرسائل : 17
العمر : 32
العمل/الترفيه : football
المزاج : sad
تاريخ التسجيل : 21/06/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Arabization of Northwest Africa   الإثنين سبتمبر 29, 2008 5:37 pm

thanks my brother mis imzouren for this theme
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://cafe-rif.com
 
Arabization of Northwest Africa
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1
 مواضيع مماثلة
-
» FIFA WORLD CUP SOUTH AFRICA + FIFA 2012 █ PC █

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
إمزورن تحت المجهر :: 

@ منتدى اللغات @ :: English

-
انتقل الى: